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by Tucker, Shelby

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In this event, there may be a slight delay in shipping and possible variation in description. Our Day return guarantee still applies. Advanced Book Search Browse by Subject. Make an Offer. Find Rare Books Book Value. A coalition called the Land Security and Environmental Conservation Group has analysed satellite imagery and conducted field trips, and is preparing to lobby against the plantations as a source of environmental degradation as well as land conflict.

U Brang Awng of the Kachin State Conservation Working Group, one of 11 member organisations, said the network had identified more than , acres covered by banana plantations in Waingmaw Township alone. However, anecdotal evidence points to severe effects on nearby communities, with the partial diversion of streams to the thirsty plants, and the contamination of soil and water sources from the routine spraying of plantations with pesticides and fungicides.

A staff member at the Kachin State Directorate of Investment and Company Administration, which was established in Myitkyina in mid, told Frontier via telephone that although DICA registered companies, it was not concerned with their business activity and was therefore unable to comment on the number of companies involved in growing bananas. If a registered company wanted to invest in plantations, it would need the approval of the state agriculture ministry, she said.


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Mya Thein confirmed to Frontier that his ministry had given no approvals for banana plantations. Tatmadaw units are also visibly profiting from the business, though it is hard to gauge the scale and precise nature of military involvement. On the drive to Mukchyaik village in Waingmaw Township, Frontier saw a banana plantation in a compound occupied by the 85th Infantry Battalion under the Myitkyina-based Northern Command.

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Burma: The Curse of Independence by Shelby Tucker, | SOIL 土壤文創

Despite identifying widespread illegality, the state government has not articulated a clear plan of action in response. Comments to Frontier by the state agriculture minister suggest that the government has little appetite to curb the plantations. Instead, it may try to use widely criticised land laws to give the plantations a legal footing and turn them into an industry to be regulated and taxed like any other.

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The state investigation team found that most of the land used for banana plantations is formally classified by the government as vacant, fallow or virgin, bringing it under a law that was amended in September. The amendment to the Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Land Management Law requires anyone occupying land so classified — whether a poor Kachin smallholder or a well-connected company — to apply for a year permit from a government management committee, or face up to two years in jail and a fine of up to K, for trespassing.


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  7. An October 30, , notification set a March 11 deadline for applications. Despite its designation as vacant, fallow or virgin, much of this land is actively managed by communities as farmland, orchards or productive forest in accordance with customary law and practice.


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    This is particularly the case in Kachin where, according to the Department of Agricultural Land Management and Statistics, 43 percent of land is deemed vacant, fallow or virgin. Those using such land usually lack formal documents for it and are probably unaware of the implications of the law. Behind the banana plantations is an obscure nexus of Chinese investors, armed groups, administrators and Kachin-based companies; anyone wanting to enter the business would require the services of a well-connected advisor and fixer. One entity that has provided advice and practical assistance under the banner of fostering Kachin entrepreneurship is the Ruby Dragon Foundation, the charitable arm of the Ruby Dragon Group.

    The conglomerate, which emerged after a ceasefire with the Pa-O National Organisation in southern Shan State, has interests in mining, manufacturing, real estate, hotels and agriculture. U Khat Htein Nan, who chairs the foundation, previously held the Kachin-2 seat in the upper house, and is the younger brother of Khat Aung, the Kachin chief minister. He confirmed that the Ruby Dragon Foundation had helped Myosat Kyeh Pwint, one of the companies named in the investigation. Khat Htein Nan also denied that the foundation had a role in attracting Chinese investors.

    ISBN 13: 9780745315416

    The government has to review them according to existing laws, by-laws and regulations. NLD lawmaker U Naw Li, who represents Waingmaw-2 in the Kachin State parliament, told Frontier that he had been urging the state government since to take a position on the banana plantations, and to disclose what information it had about them. Despite the recent investigation, Naw Li doubted that state authorities would be able to overcome the powerful interests involved, at least in the short term. Notwithstanding land conflicts, he maintained that the plantations delivered little in the way of social and economic dividends to the state or country.

    The plantations seen by Frontier were being worked by migrants from the Bamar heartlands of central Myanmar or from Rakhine State. In Mukchyaik village, Frontier met 10 workers from Magway Region, who each had to tend more than 8, plants. U Kyaw Htun said he had moved from Magway with eight family members in Chinese company officers closely supervise his work, he said.

    Burma is a country blessed with rich natural resources, traditional crafts and cultural diversity, but cursed with many problems.. Shelby Tucker, author of this book, traces the impact of colonization, eventually torn part by the seismic events of the Japanese invasion and British reconquest. Following the killing of Aung San and the British departure, this book also analyses the downward spiral of Burman misrule, its mistreatment of minorities and cooperation with the international traffic in drugs….

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