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A marketing communication tool can be anything from: advertising , personal selling , direct marketing , sponsorship, communication, and promotion to public relations. MC are made up of the marketing mix which is made up of 4P's: Price, Promotion, Place and Product, for a business selling goods, and made up of 7P's: Price, Promotion, Place, Product, People, Physical evidence and Process, for a service based business. Marketing communications includes advertising , promotions, sales, branding and online promotion.
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Successful branding involves targeting audiences who appreciate the organization's marketing program. Advertising is a small but important part of marketing communications; the marketing communications mix is a set of tools that can be used to deliver a clear and consistent message to target audiences. It is also commonly called the promotional mix.
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Crosier states that all terms have the same meaning in the context of the 4ps: Product, price, place and promotion. The marketing plan identifies key opportunities, threats, weaknesses and strengths, sets objectives and develops an action plan to achieve marketing goals. Each section of the 4P's sets its own object; for instance, the pricing objective might be to increase sales in a certain geographical market by pricing their own product or service lower than their competitors.
This creates a significant change in the market because more people of the target market would aim to do business with your organization than your competitors, because pricing is one of the most significant aspects of marketing that can change the whole market positively and or negatively.
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Communication is one important aspect of the marketing mix. In the 21st century, communications objectives focus on more customized messages, targeting customer groups or individuals to create high responses and greater brand interaction. As business becomes increasingly global with greater access to Internet, mobile phones and social media, new challenges exist to inform people in targeted foreign markets.
Shifts in the global economy and access to new markets lead also to greater demands for product shipping and associated services. To be effective, communication strategies must converge with marketing objectives while also accounting for local languages, dialects and cultural norms. External communications might involve market research questionnaires, office website, guarantees, company annual report and presentations for investors.
Internal communication can be the marketing materials, price list, product catalogues, sales presentations and management communications. On the other hand, each market demands different types of communications. For example, the industrial market demands a more personal communication but the consumer market demands non-personal communication. One-to-one is more immediate, while the many-to-may channels tend to be less urgent but with greater longevity.
The "Elaboration Likelihood Model" is used to demonstrate how persuasion occurs. When a marketing communication message is sent out, first it must be acknowledged and attended by the receiver. By giving their attention to the marketing communication, consumers will begin to process and comprehend the message. There are two routes to persuasion: Central and peripheral.
Central route processing is used in high-involvement purchase decisions. These are infrequent, high-risk purchases, usually involving large amounts of money and a significant amount of time for example, purchasing a house or car. Because these purchase decisions are high risk, a large cognitive effort is expended in order to rationally select the most logical and valuable option available. In these marketing messages, information about the product or service itself is most valuable. Peripheral route processing is employed in low involvement purchase decisions.
These are frequent, low-risk purchases, generally of a low or medium cost in which choices are made more on affective or emotion based values rather than cognitive or rational values. Because of this, marketing messages will employ more storytelling and imagery, focusing on how the product or service makes one feel, and the associations it has, rather than the attributes and specifications it possesses. Communication can be defined as process of using, word, sound or visual cues to supply information to one or more people.
With the prevalent use of technology, customers are seeking out information about brands, products and businesses prior to purchase. Businesses are now having to take into consideration that both opinion leaders and opinion formers who have a great influence over today's society and their perceptions. So they have to be included into the communication process before the recipient of the message receives it.
This model is more effective when there is common ground between the senders and receivers so they can communicate effectively. Choosing the appropriate source helps develop the message and appeal to the targeted audience. The source will be more effective if they are relatable to the target audience. This realm of understanding is represented by the overlapping circles. The more knowledge the source has about who they are targeting, the better they can understand how the receiver may interpret or react to the message.
Opinion leaders are consumers who have large influence over the purchasing behaviour of other consumers. By following the consumption patterns of opinion leaders, consumers aspire to achieve a similar status or lifestyle, and project a similar image. Because of this, opinion leaders are powerful factors in marketing communications.
Having opinion leaders endorse a brand can increase brand awareness and sales. Due to this, large companies pay highly influential celebrities to endorse their products. Opinion Formers are consumers who are regarded by their peers as being highly knowledgeable and trustworthy. They have specialized knowledge about the area which corresponds with the product, service or business. For example, this could be a doctor sponsoring a form of medication, or a personal trainer recommending a sports brand to the customer. This means that both opinion leaders and opinion formers have a large influence on the consumer and their perceived view of the business, product, or service provided.
The message is sent from the sender and the opinion leaders share their opinions with the targeted audience. The core model of communication has been criticized for its linearity — sender, message, receiver and its absence of structural perception. The adjusted model of communication was developed within a marketing context, when marketers saw that people were affected more by influential homophilous groups family and friends and heterophilous groups outside the person's network than mass media Dahlen, The adjusted model is different to the core model of communication because it incorporates opinion leaders also known as gate keepers.
Television has since its inception dominated the advertising media scene, due to its combination of visual and aural stimulation, allowing for greater attention grabbing and more effective transmission of messages than other forms of media. It has a few disadvantages: television commercials suffer from being "zipped" and zapped".
Often viewers will record programs purely so they can be viewed without the commercial breaks. This is also done to avoid watching advertisements. Using television advertisements is beneficial due to its wide reach and the degree to which content can be segmented according to the intended target market.
This helps to ensure the intended audience is being reached with the marketing message. While initial production costs of a television advertisement are high, it is likely to reach a mass audience and, therefore, maintains a low cost per viewer, making it an efficient communication platform. Radio by definition is the broadcasting of sound programmes to the public and today can be live streamed through a broadband connection or digitally transmitted into people's cars or homes.
Due to the lack of a visual aspect, radio advertising attempts to create imagery in the consumers mind.
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Radio advertising is also extremely effective at reinforcing messages encountered in other channels such as television. This is an example of "Integrated Marketing Communications", in which multiple marketing channels are simultaneously utilized to increase the strength and reach of the marketing message. Like television, radio marketing benefits from the ability to select specific time slots and programmes in this case in the form of radio stations and segments within.
Fill et al. A common technique used by companies is known as imagery transfer, where a complementary visual television advertisement is used alongside a one-dimensional radio advertisement featuring a similar audio track to stimulate a visual association between the two. Radio infomercials are often a simple script that is read out by the presenter. This is quick and does not require extensive lead times due to minimal production efforts. Printed media is the most basic form of media advertising.
It is the most challenging to create strong imagery with, due to its lack of sensory stimulation, but can be effective in efficient, clear information communication and message delivery. Where a consumer may miss a message in video or audio perhaps a loud noise interrupts, or someone blocks their view in print the message remains visible indefinitely. Aspects such as size, colour and style can be used to increase effectiveness relative to other print advertisements, which is important as despite being a basic media communication channel, print is the second largest medium after television Ang, Page Traditionally, marketing communications practitioners focused on the creation and execution of printed marketing collateral.
Traditional media, or as some refer to as old media, has been used within the marketing and advertising world for many years. For many decades, these forms of communication have been the main source for marketers to reach both consumers and other companies. In a world with no internet and the vast world of social media, roots of advertising and promotion lie within traditional media, where there is a more direct, physical way of advertising.
Advertising in the form of print is used by businesses in the form of billboards, magazines, newspapers and posters, to get their message across to the target audience. Businesses will usually place a billboard in areas where in can be easily seen and where the target audience will spend their daily activities. Newspaper, magazines and posters are smaller in size and can be found in numerous places allowing the general public availability to read them.
Depending on the product or service that is being advertised, marketers may specify where majority of their prints may go to, such as advertisement of a new shampoo may be more common within salons. Print media are a highly customizable, varying in print size, font, positioning and colour combination.
Newspapers commonly use coarse paper and tend to have poor reproduction quality, while magazines can enhance the appearance of a certain product due to the heavy weight gloss paper used which translates colour well and offers a long lasting quality and likeability. Due to the high-quality reproduction, magazines tend to last longer and are often found in hair salons and waiting rooms. Consumers often cut out individual images which further prolongs the message and increases potential exposure.
Although the relevance of the message may be lost during this extended time, brand awareness may still be raised.